Goat’s milk, according to their chemical composition, physical and organoleptic properties, it is very similar to cow even though the individual components are significant differences. Goat’s milk and products thereof (cheese), are extremely white, as the b-carotene containing only traces. For goat milk characteristic “goat flavor and odor” emanating from capron, caprylic and capric fatty acids, which are part of the present and as a result of spontaneous degradation of milk fat
Of the fat content in goat’s milk is 2.5 to 4.5%. The milk is in the form of fat globules with a diameter of 2 to 3 micrometer (goat milk), or from 3 to 8 microns (cow milk).
Smaller fat globules in goat milk are better dispersed, which ensures a better homogeneity and faster hydrolysis of fatty acid contributes to a better digestibility compared to cow’s milk, which is particularly important in the diet of children with intestinal absorption problem. Milk fat goat’s milk is better absorbed in the digestive system, for faster enzymatic degradation.
Goat’s milk is digested for about 40 minutes, and cows for about two and a half hours
Better digestibility, expressed alkalinity and higher buffer capacity characteristics according to which the goat milk is significantly different from other types of milk. It is therefore recommended in the diet of children, patients and convalescents. With goat milk good results were achieved in the treatment of various disorders of absorption in patients suffering from lipid disorders, heart disease, pediatric epilepsy, fibrous cyst, gallbladder disease and gallstones.
The children were fed goat milk recorded faster growth, higher body mass and improved bone mineralization than those fed cow’s milk.
Milk fat goat’s milk contains conjugated linoleic acid, which is proven anticancer activity. Numerous studies confirm that goat milk has anti-cancer properties. Contains less cholesterol (10 mg/100 g) compared with cow (13 mg/100 g).
Goat’s milk is the proportion of protein is very similar to cow, and the differences were found in the amino acid composition and relative certain types of proteins. Milk protein consists of casein and milk serum proteins (albumin, globulin). Nutritional value of the protein depends on the content of certain amino acids that are absorbed in the digestive system. And goat milk proteins are easier to digest than cow’s milk protein and amino acid absorption is more efficient. One cup provides a 17.4% and 16.3% cow’s daily value. The processing of milk into cheese is particularly significant clotting time and curd strength, which depends on the composition of milk proteins.
Curd from goat’s milk is easier to digest because of its low strength, a shorter clotting time compared with cow’s milk.
Goat milk contains less lactose than cow’s milk, which is an advantage for people who are lactose intolerant. For these people a part of lactose remains unhydrolyzed and thereby is not absorbed in the small intestine. Lactose intolerance is a condition that occurs as a result of neresorbirane lactose. Some researchers have found that goat milk contains ologosaharide acting anti-inflammatory and to contribute to easier digestion, especially in the case of disturbed bowel function.
Vitamins and minerals
Although the content of minerals in goat and cow milk are generally quite similar, goat’s milk contains 13% more calcium, 25% more vitamin B6, 47% more vitamin A, 134% more potassium, niacin three times more copper and 4 times more. For bone mineralization is particularly important role of calcium and phosphorus. One glass of goat’s milk provides 32.6% of the daily value for calcium and 27% for phosphorus, compared with cow’s milk 29.7% (for calcium) and 23.2% (for phosphorus). Goat’s milk can help prevent high blood pressure and atherosclerosis. Goat’s milk is a good source of potassium, an essential mineral for maintaining normal blood pressure and heart function. A glass of goat’s milk contains 498.7 mg of potassium, and thus provides 14.2% of the daily value. Goat’s milk also contains 27% more antioxidant selenium than cow’s milk. Compared to cow’s, goat’s milk contains less folic acid, important in the synthesis of hemoglobin.
Food and therapeutic value
Nutritional value of goat milk is determined by its energy value, the content of essential fatty and amino acid content of vitamins and minerals, as well as its digestibility. The energy value of the goat milk is 60-75 kcal/100 g, or 25 to 313 kJ/100 g, and approximately the same as cow’s milk.
On the healing power of goat milk warned long ago and Hippocrates, adding that whey obtained from goat milk has healing properties. In the 19th Century treating whey from goat’s milk was very effective in pneumonia, jaundice, rheumatism, role (gout). Goat milk recommend that those suffering from tuberculosis, the most widespread fatal disease at that time.
Allergy to cow’s milk proteins or other allergens is common in infants and children. Allergy symptoms often occur at the age of second to 4 weeks of life, underdevelopment peristaltic immune system, especially in the first 6 months of life.
Goat milk is also characterized by significant therapeutic value for human health and is often recommended for people allergic to cow’s milk protein (b-lactoglobulin)
Allergic reaction to cow’s milk protein can manifest itself in different ways and to different organs. If it is a digestive tract may cause vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain (colic), and if the infant his progress was slow. Pathophysiological symptoms of clinically manifest of the small and / or large intestine. Typical symptoms of small bowel weight loss, sensitivity and diarrhea. Bloody diarrhea, mucus in stool, edema, redness and minor ulcers symptoms are abnormal reactions of the colon. Reply respiratory allergic reaction to bronchitis, bronchial constriction, making it difficult to breathe normally. In the first month of life, infants are frequent occurrence of urticaria, and various forms of dermatitis. Studies conducted in Sweden confirmed that cow’s milk was the main cause of colic in 12 to 30% of children under the age of 3 months. How noticeable in infants whose mothers drank milk. In older children determined intolerance to cow’s milk protein in 20% of cases. Approximately 40% of patients sensitive to cow’s milk protein is well tolerated goat milk proteins. Cow’s milk is not recommended in the diet of infants under one year of age. It is generally believed that children are allergic to milk after the age of three can be taken without any consequences. Because doctors in this period of life of children, but also adults, as a substitute recommended consumption of goat milk.